4. Louisiana Purchase

John Jacob Astor, fur trader

“In the years after 1760 scientific investigation became an increasingly important part of the course of empire. …   John Jacob Astor’s pacific Fur Company, with its grand entrepôt Astoria on the Columbia River, was no mere business enterprise. Astoria represented both the expansionist energies of the American nation and the sophisticated geopolitical thought of a remarkable man.”   James P. Ronda,”The Education of an Empire Builder: John Jacob Astor and the World of the Columbia,”Columbia Magazine, Fall 1997: Vol. 11, No. 3



John Quincy Adams letter of 28 November 1818, to the American ambassador in Madrid, George William Irving, defending Andrew Jackson’s invasion of Florida, therewith making the case for American expansion.

Deathof Tecumseh; Rotunda of the United States Capitol

1831: the Trail of Tears was the forcible relocation and movement of Native Americans, including many members of the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw nations among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the Western United States. The phrase originated from a description of the removal of the Choctaw Nation.  [Wikipedia: read more….]

Science & Technology

On the National Road

The National Road Museum


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